Article Sourced from: Healthline –
Written by Kimberly Holland and Elsbeth Riley | Illustrations by Tony Bueno
Published on September 4, 2014
Medically Reviewed by George T. Krucik, MD, MBA on September 4, 2014



Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder that most often occurs in children. Symptoms of ADHD include trouble concentrating, paying attention, staying organized, and remembering details.

It can be a difficult condition to diagnose. Children with untreated ADHD are sometimes mislabeled as troublemakers or problem children. Make sure you know the basic facts and symptoms of ADHD.

5 Fast Facts



There are demographic factors that impact the risks of being diagnosed with ADHD. Children living in households where English is the main language are more than four times as likely to be diagnosed as children living in households where English is the second language. And children living in households that make less than two times the federal poverty level have a higher risk than children from higher-income households.

Certain conditions might affect certain races in different ways, but ADHD impacts children of all races. From 2001 to 2010, the rate of ADHD among non-Hispanic black girls increased 90 percent.

ADHD affects children of all races, including:

  • whites: 9.8%
  • blacks: 9.5%
  • Latinos: 5.5%

Children are also diagnosed at different ages. Detecting symptoms differs from case to case, and the more severe, the earlier the diagnosis.

  • 8 years old: average age of diagnosis for children with mild ADHD
  • 7 years old: average age of diagnosis for children with moderate ADHD
  • 5 years old: average age of diagnosis for children with severe ADHD

On The Rise

Cases and diagnoses of ADHD have been increasing dramatically in the past few years. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) says that 5 percent of American children have ADHD. But the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) puts the number at more than double the APA’s number. The CDC says that 11 percent of American children, ages 4 to 17, have the attention disorder.  That’s an increase of 42 percent in just eight years.

Increase in Diagnoses:

  • 2003: 7.8%
  • 2007: 9.5%
  • 2011: 11 %

50 States


An estimated 6.4 million American children ages 4-17 have been diagnosed with ADHD. The incidence of ADHD is higher in some states than others. Generally, states in the Western parts of the United States have the lowest rates of ADHD. Nevada has the lowest rates. States in the Midwest seem to have the highest rates. Kentucky has the highest rates.

Lowest Rates:

  1. Nevada: 4.2%
  2. New Jersey: 5.5%
  3. Colorado, 5.6%
  4. Utah: 5.8%
  5. California: 5.9%

Highest Rates:

  1. Kentucky: 14.8%
  2. Arkansas: 14.6%
  3. Louisiana: 13.3%
  4. Indiana: 13.0%
  5. Delaware and South Carolina: 11.7%



Currently, 6.1 percent of all American children are being treated for ADHD with medication. Some states have higher rates of treatment with medication than others. One in five American children who has been diagnosed with ADHD is not receiving medicine or mental health counseling for their disorder.

Lowest Rate of Treatment

  1. Nevada: 2%
  2. Hawaii: 3.2%
  3. California: 3.3%
  4. Alaska, New Jersey, and Utah: 3.5%
  5. Colorado: 3.6%

Highest Rate of Treatment

  1. Louisiana: 10.4%
  2. Kentucky: 10.1%
  3. Indiana and Arkansas: 9.9%
  4. North Carolina: 9.4%
  5. Iowa: 9.2%

ADHD & Other Conditions

ADHD doesn’t increase a person’s risk for other conditions or diseases. But some people with ADHD — especially children — are more likely to experience a range of co-existing conditions. They can sometimes make social situations more difficult or school more challenging.

Some co-existing conditions include:

  • learning disabilities
  • conduct disorders and difficulties, including antisocial behavior, fighting, and oppositional defiant disorder
  • anxiety disorder
  • depression
  • bipolar disorder
  • Tourette’s syndrome
  • substance abuse
  • bed-wetting problems
  • sleep disorders

Medical Costs


Cost is a major factor when it comes to how a condition affects someone. Treatment plans and medications can be expensive, and planning around payment can be stressful. A study from 2007 claimed that the “cost of illness” for a person with ADHD is $14,576 each year. That means ADHD costs Americans $42.5 billion dollars each year — and that’s on the conservative side of ADHD prevalence estimates.

Medicines and treatments aren’t the only costs to consider when dealing with an ADHD diagnosis. Other factors that can make a dent in your pocketbook include:

  • education expenses
  • loss of work
  • juvenile justice
  • healthcare costs

Different Symptoms


Boys and girls display very different ADHD symptoms, and boys are much more likely to be diagnosed with the attention disorder. Why? It’s possible the nature of ADHD symptoms in boys makes their condition more noticeable than it is in girls.

Boys tend to display externalized symptoms that most people think of when they think of ADHD behavior, for example:

  • impulsivity or “acting out”
  • hyperactivity, such as running and hitting
  • lack of focus, including inattentiveness
  • physical aggression

ADHD in girls is often easy to overlook because it’s not “typical” ADHD behavior. The symptoms aren’t as obvious as they are in boys. They can include:

  • being withdrawn
  • low self-esteem and anxiety
  • intellectual impairment and difficulty with academic achievement
  • inattentiveness or a tendency to “daydream”
  • verbal aggression: teasing, taunting, or name-calling

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Heart Attack

Posted: August 13, 2014 in Uncategorized

Heart Attack | General Information about Heart Attacks
Source: | by | Aug 3, 2014 | Featured Articles | 0 comments

Heart AttackGeneral Characteristics
The most common type of heart attack is caused by a coronary thrombosis, which occurs when a clot (thrombus) blocks one or more of the Blood vessels that nourish the heart muscle.

As a result of the lack of blood, part of the muscle may be damaged, and its ability to contract may be lost. This is known as a myocardial infarction.

If the infarct is small and the electrical impulses that control the heart’s contractions (beats) are not disturbed, chances for recovery are excellent.

Coronary Artery Disease
Coronary thrombosis is one of the manifestations of coronary artery disease. As we grow older, our blood vessels tend to lose their elasticity, a process known as arteriosclerosis. The arteries may also become narrowed or clogged with deposits of fatty material called atheromas, a condition called atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is progressive and usually does not produce symptoms until there is significant blockage in the blood flow. Sometimes, in fact, the first symptom of this heart disease is a heart attack.

Although the specific cause of atherosclerosis is not known, it has been found that certain risk factors help in identifying population groups that are more likely to develop it. Three major risk factors are high levels of cholesterol and other blood fats, high blood pressure (hypertension) and cigarette smoking. Others include diabetes, obesity, a sedentary life style, aging, being male and heredity.

Atherosclerosis begins forming as a fatty streak on the inner wall of an artery, usually at its branching-out point, and disturbs the smooth flow of blood. As patches of fatty tissue build up, the inner wall becomes narrower, which inhibits blood flow in a more significant way. An artery continues to narrow as the tissue buildup progresses, and in time, the fatty deposit becomes a hard mass of fatty tissue with a tough outer lining of cells – a plaque. As plaques spread and thicken, they erode the wall of the artery, which interferes with blood flow and makes it increasingly turbulent. This turbulence may trigger the blood to form a clot (thrombus), partially or completely blocking the artery. Further, a fragment of the clot (embolus) may be carried by the bloodstream and block an artery at some distant, narrower point.

Heart attacks sometimes occur in people with little or no coronary artery disease. Some experts believe that a spasm or sudden constriction of the coronary artery may be the cause of these heart attacks. It appears that a spasm may occur in a coronary artery that is totally free of atherosclerosis (as well as in one that is heavily affected by that condition), and this would explain why many people suffer angina and other cardiac problems without any evidence of underlying blockage in the arteries.

Symptoms of a Heart Attack
A heart attack can come on gradually, preceded by several attacks of angina over days, weeks, months or even years. (Angina is the name given to the chest pain that arises when the muscular wall of the heart is temporarily deprived of sufficient oxygen.) But a heart attack may also occur without any apparent warning, and in people who have never previously experienced any chest pain.

Typically, the pain of a heart attack is a sensation of constriction in the central chest area; it may vary in intensity from a feeling of tightness to one of agonizing crushing or bursting. The pain may be continuous, or it may last a few minutes, fade and then recur. It commonly spreads to the back, jaw and left arm. Although a heart attack may be precipitated by physical or emotional stress, the pain, unlike that of angina, does not subside when the stress ceases.

Pain is commonly accompanied by shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, dizziness and pallor. (Some people experience a heart attack without any of these symptoms. This is known as a “silent” infarct, which may be confirmed by changes in an electrocardiogram or certain other hospital tests.)

A Medical Emergency
Most deaths from heart attack occur within minutes to hours after the onset of symptoms. Therefore, when sudden and severe chest pain occurs, an ambulance should be called immediately and the individual taken to a hospital. Denying that these symptoms represent a life-threatening illness may cause a delay that could be fatal.

One of the major cause of death from coronary thrombosis is the development of abnormal heart rhythms in the hours immediately following the attack. Emergency treatment, therefore, concentrates on stabilizing the heart rhythm, as well as on relieving pain and preventing shock.

In the hospital’s intensive-care or cardiac-care unit, the rate and rhythm of the heart will be continuously monitored by an electrocardiograph machine. Blood tests to detect enzymes released from the heart aid in assessing the infarct further and various medications may be given. Mood changes and feelings of apprehension are very common following a heart attack, and a mild tranquilizer is often given to the patient.

Depending on the severity of the attack, the patient may be allowed out of bed within three or four days and be discharged after two weeks. Bed rest for more than a short time should be avoided, where possible, because it results in a rapid loss of the body’s muscle tone and in increased heart rate on exertion. Physical activity is gradually increased and most patients are able to return to their full range of normal activity within a few months.

Long-Term Treatment
Depending on such factors as the patient’s age and general physical condition, and the extent of the heart damage, a variety of different approaches may be taken to deal with the underlying coronary artery disease and to reduce the possibility of another heart attack.

Changes in life style.
A number of steps can be taken to prevent or slow down the progression of heart disease. These include stopping smoking, exercising regularly and adopting a low-cholesterol diet.

Drug treatment.
The use of drugs depends upon the nature of the heart attack and underlying coronary disease. Antihypertensive drugs may be prescribed to lower the blood pressure. Other drugs may be given to improve heart function, prevent chest pain or lower the level of blood cholesterol.

Other treatments.
A number of other treatments, including coronary bypass surgery, are available. Obviously, their use depends upon individual needs.

Summing Up
Heart attacks are a common occurrence, particularly among middle-aged and older men. An understanding of the risk factors involved in coronary artery disease, and the adoption of appropriate preventive measures may reduce the likelihood of an attack. If the typical pain of a heart attack does strike, prompt treatment greatly improves the chances of survival. Modern treatments enable most heart attack patients to resume a full, active life, although some changes in life style probably will be required.


Original Article Source:


Image  —  Posted: August 12, 2014 in Uncategorized

Shame and ADHD

Living with ADHD can feel like a constant stream of apologies: we’re sorry we’re late, sorry we lost our keys, sorry we can’t keep the house neat, no matter how hard we try.
If you have ADHD, especially if you were diagnosed late in your life, these endless apologies and self-blame may have added up to a crippling sense of shame.

If you won’t even look in your purse anymore because you’re tortured by how disorganized it is, you may have a problem controlling your shame.


ADD / ADHD Alternatives

Posted: August 5, 2014 in Uncategorized

ADD / ADHD Alternatives
by | Aug 3, 2014 | Featured Articles | 0 comments

Alternative Approaches to ADD/ADHD Treatment
By Amy Paturel, MS, MPH Medically reviewed by Kevin O. Hwang, MD, MPH

Medication alone is not always the answer.
Over the past two decades, diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/attention deficit disorder (ADD) have continued to rise. According to Blair Hammond, M.D., Pediatric Clerkship Director in the Department of Pediatrics at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, this increase is “in part because doctors are more aware of the diagnosis, and also because parents are more aware of the condition and bring up the issue more frequently with their doctors/teachers.”

It’s no wonder, then, that prescriptions for ADD/ADHD medications have also seen a sharp increase. In fact, more than half of children diagnosed with ADHD receive some form of prescription medication. Although experts claim the combination of behavioral intervention with prescription medication is the Cadillac treatment for ADD/ADHD, there’s some evidence for the effectiveness of several alternative therapies.

  • Biofeedback. ADD/ADHD kids spend more time in theta brainwaves (a daydream-like state) than beta brainwaves (the type that keep us alert). But children can learn to stay in the appropriate brainwaves by playing video games with a controller governed by their brains. “If they’re playing a racecar game, for example, the speed of the car slows down or even comes to a halt when the child’s brainwaves shift outside of the appropriate range,” says L. Eugene Arnold, MD, MEd, professor emeritus of psychiatry at Ohio State University and interim director of the university’s Nisonger Center. “But, if they’re in the right brainwaves, they can go as fast as they want.” The goal: To permanently change the underlying abnormal electrical brain activity associated with ADHD.
  • Meditative activities, guided imagery, and hypnosis. “Similar to biofeedback, imagery can help soothe, calm and focus an impulsive brain,” says Donna Fremon-Powell, a certified guided imagery therapist and hypnotherapist in La Habra, California. “Plus, since ADHD children spend a lot of time in theta brainwaves, repetitive positive affirmations — both audible and subliminal (like on a CD while they sleep) — are readily accepted by the subconscious mind.”
  • Herbs and supplements. St. John’s wort is among the most commonly used herbs for ADHD, but the latest research shows that children who take St. John’s wort to control symptoms are no better off than those taking a dummy pill. In fact, there’s no evidence to support the use of herbs in ADHD treatment, and there may be dangerous interactions for kids with ADHD taking herbs along with prescription medications. However, one supplement that may be effective is melatonin, a natural sleep hormone. “Melatonin probably has no direct effect on symptoms of ADHD,” claims Arnold, “but it may help children with ADHD initiate sleep.”
  • Mirrors. Researchers claim that having a child complete tasks in front of a mirror may help children with ADHD stay focused. “The mirrors act as a coach to remind them they’re getting off task,” says Arnold. In one study, the more time ADHD kids spent looking in the mirror, the better they were at completing the puzzle they were given. The caveat: The mirror method only works if the child has a clear diagnosis of ADHD. In normal children, the mirrors may actually decrease attention and performance.
  • Massage. It’s no surprise that massage can help boost mood, but there’s some evidence to suggest it can also help children focus. In one study of 28 teenage boys with ADHD, those who received 15 minutes of massage for 10 consecutive days had better concentration than those who underwent a guided muscle relaxation exercise for the same amount of time.
  • Exercise. Exercise is good for the brain as well as the body, and it may improve ADD/ADHD symptoms as well as mood and Anxiety. Yoga, tai chi, or qi gong may be your best bets, but any form of exercise is likely to do the trick,” says Fremon-Powell. “It helps kids with ADHD release energy in a healthy, constructive way.” One study even suggests that exercising in open, green spaces boosts brain function. And while one study doesn’t meet the burden of proof, a walk in the park may be good for the soul — even if it doesn’t help ADHD.


Mobile Apps for Building Focus and Memory

For the ADHD brain, focus is like a muscle that needs routine exercise to grow stronger.

Thankfully, some of the best brain workouts are right at your fingertips — mobile apps designed to improve memory, concentration, and organization skills for ADHD adults.

Spend just a few minutes a day with these brain-training apps to bulk up your cognitive abilities. Your ADHD brain will thank you.



Image  —  Posted: February 15, 2014 in Uncategorized


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